Water Scarcity In Africa Facts


Lasy year Nigeria suffered a deadly epidemic of cholera due to contaminated water. Most of the places water source is a water well and borewells, which sometimes contains wastewater. Some people rely on artificial water sources due to water deficit, and some walk up to 10 km to collector water from dry river ponds.


Ethiopia used to have many lakes 20 years ago, which have now dried and used to their full potential. They recently build a 5 billion dollar dam along with Sudan to suffice the water need of its citizens. However, it may cause a conflict with neiboughring nation Egypt. Ethiopia is running out of its water resource. It rapidly becoming a water-scarce country; however, the major problem lies with the UK and Egtpy treaty of 1929 to share control of the Nile river.


Egypt having Nile river running through its center, is suffering from water supply problems. The capital city Cairo is batteling for water shortage. Ethiopia is pushing with the water dam project, while Egypt is not happy with the agreements. Egypt realized they could not rely on the Nile river, and water scarcity will become permanant if immediate steps not taken place. Between Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia has now devolved into a complicated triangle of contention. Egypt gets approximately 55 million cubic meters from the Nile river in addition to recycled water that makes a total of about 80 billion per year. This demand is rising every year up to 120 billion cubic meters.

DR Congo

DR Congo lies on the banks of freshwater lakes and has had heavy rainfall in recent years. However, it is still counted as water scarcity in the African region as it has no running water across its state. Many times water has to be traded from bordering countries


Rwanda is a country where water cost is double compared to other African water-deficit countries. A container is a cost at 50 Rwanda francs, and it is easily carried across borders from Rwanda to DR Condo without any immigration checks. Water scarcity has become imminent across Rwanda regions due to which the majority of children cannot attend schools.

South Africa

South Africa is the wealthiest nation in the African region. However, consecutive three years of drought has made the capital city Cape Town’s water supply is run dry. There are legal rules in cities where water drinking water is not available for any other purpose other than drinking. People got arrest for even washing cars with drinking water. In some videos, good income earning people carry 4-5 buckets in hands-on streets, collecting water from public taps. The protests are ongoing against the privatization of water.


Tanzania has very few water resources. It is one of the water-scarce nations in the African continent where people lack access to basic needs, and sources of water are a far story. People travel 70 miles a day to search for water for themselves and their livestock. Water scarcity has led to war and conflict with neighboring countries and an increase in the rise of armed rebels. Not only that, but there has been an increase in cattle theft and smuggling.


Kenya has a population close a million, and more than half of Kenya’s population doesn’t have access to clean water. Villagers rely on local government to get water from trucks and boreholes, which contains harmful substances. The government is working to find water, but finding the water table has become an impossible challenge.


Uganda has adequate sources of water, and villages mostly have to dig a hole in open soil to get water. The problem is not with water but getting into it because most of the water sources are 50-0 deep inside the land. Uganda always faces a drought situation and require international help.

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Water Analysis Information and Facts

Water is an essential component of living, and it also gets degraded in quality when it contains an excess of unwanted chemicals and harmful microorganisms. Water gets polluted by various reasons, and sources of water bodies have many uses, such as the public use of agricultural, industrial, fisheries, and recreational use.

Water quality is relative to the intended purpose because there are many aspects of water pollution, and there are many variables that determine water quality for a given use. Ions like nitrates hydroxides and chlorides are entirely soluble in water and are called dissolved solids. The major factors controlling the quality of water are physical, biological, and chemical.

The quality of water is analyzed based on its natural occurrence. Chemical water is a natural form of water where we have a chemical composition as H2O. Portable water like water available in the bottle is fit for drinking. Palatable water looks pure from its appearance, but it may be harmful substances. Wholesome water is chemically not refined, and it does not contain any toxic substances. Polluted water contains hazardous material, and contaminated water contains harmful pathogens like viruses that cause dengue and typhoid.

We distinguish water into two categories, hard water, and soft water. Hard water is like salty water, and it contains calcium and magnesium ions in the water. It does not produce a lather with soap, and there are two types of hard water, temperament hardness, and permanent hardness. The temporary hardness is the result of the presence of carbonate and bicarbonate ions of calcium and magnesium ions.

We analysis base on various parameters and methods used for water investigation. The physical characteristic of water quickly determined analysis on an abstract level with its physical features like color, odor or smalle, turbidity, PH value, conductivity, and Total solid dissolved (TDS). The other chemical properties that water test happens on its hardness, the level of calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, alkalinity, and nitrate molecules. Water analysis also contains critiques of the toxic metals inside water like Copper, Chromium, Cadmium, Zinc, Lead, Mercury, and Iron.

The turbidity degree of water tells how clear is water when seeing with naked eyes. For example, when you add a tablespoon of sand in a glass of water. The sand will reside in the base, and water will be clear enough. However, as soon as you start stirring the water along with precipitated sand, water will lose its clarity, and it will begin to become brown. If the water becomes 30% unclear, then we can say the turbidity of rain is 30% turbid. Turbidity is usually high in water deficit regions.

Water is often a conductor of electricity depending upon the number of dissolved salt present in water. Typically, two essential factors for water analysis that we need to consider. First is, what substances and organisms we are interested in testing in water and second are, what procedures and equipment do we use to make the measurements.

Water contains organic nutrients like BOD, COD, Phenols, Oil, Pesticide, and ammonium nitrate. Element tests by dissolving other chemicals into water samples. During water scarcity, organic and inorganic compounds are analyzed regularly to make sure water is not contaminated and drinkable.

The bacteria total coliform and fecal coliform would impact severely on animal bodies and may also lead to physical disinformation of the body. Surprisingly water may contain a higher level of radioactive alpha and beta emitters that go through analysis during the wastewater filtration process.

For drinkable water, the total coliforms organism must be less 50 mm per 100 ml; Ph must be between 6.5 – 8.5, and dissolved oxygen must be between 6mg or more. For non-drinkable use, total coliform must be less than 500mg per 100 ml; pH must be between 6.5 – 8.5, and dissolved oxygen must be more than 5mg/l. For wildlife and fisheries, pH must be between 6.5 and 8.5, dissolved oxygen greater than 4mg/l, and free ammonia. For irrigation and industrial use, pH must be between 6 – 8.5, sodium absorption ration less than 26, and electrical conductivity at 25-degree Celcius micromhos/cm.

The inland surface water is in a multitude of proportions of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen, chlorides, boron, PH value, arsenic value, iron, lead, copper, and fluorides. Water filtrations systems use PH meter to measure PH value in water. The chemical reactions in water depend upon its acidity and fundamental PH values. For example, If water is acidic, chemical reactions will not happen on the water. PH values are also useful to determine wastewater treatment and water supply. PH values of water differentiate across water scarcity areas.

Total dissolved solids classify if the water is reusable. If the water has higher TDS, then it is not usable and may cause diseases like gastrointestinal irritation and also ideal for industrial use. TDS is determined by vaporizing water and sometimes prolong drying and desiccate to measure the portion of solids that passes filters.

Water analysis outline involves bioassay tests where oxygen is measured depending upon how much oxygen microorganism consumes when water is kept in the open air. The process termed aerobic conditions. If required, water examination involves an argentometric method where chloride is measured based on the organic alkaline solution using potassium chromate value indicators.

The level of dissolved oxygen is critical in water analysis to measure the condition of polluted water. Many factors affect the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the stream. It includes temperature, as oxygen dissolved quickly in cold water flow because the level of oxygen varies with the volume and velocity of water flowing in the stream. Faster the flow of water, the more will be the concentration of oxygen entering the water from the atmosphere.

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10 Common Types of Water Bottle

Water bottles play an essential role when traveling or working out in gyms. The capacity of the Water bottle determines the amount of water consumed per day. For example, if you would take 1 liter of the water bottle to office, it means you may only drink a 1-liter bottle during working hours.

On the other side, If you take 1 liter of water to the gym and considering you spend 1 hour in the gym, then it means body process 1 liter of water in an hour. Although while workout, it is essential to drink, but 1-8 hours difference is still pretty big. Following, we discuss significant types of water bottles.

Sport water bottles:

Water bottle use for sport

Our body demands more water when we wake up. It is advised to drink two-liter of water within 2 hours you wake up. People who go jogging, prefer to carry a small half-liter water bottle so they can fit into the waist belt. These bottles have a capacity of half-liter to 1 liter.

Colorful water bottles:

colorful water bottles

Colorful water bottles are typically made up of steel and colored outside with paint. They cost around $11 to $15 piece in any grocery or big shopping malls like Walmart. They come in 1-liter to 2-liter water capacity. Because of their vivid color, school children like them very much.

Plain plastic bottle:

plain plastic water bottle

Plain plastic bottles are thin and not much attractive. They are cheap and cost around $.50. They come in the capacity of 1-5 liters. You will find these types of bottles in water scarcity regions like Africa. They are made from non-recyclable plastic and hence challenging to dispose of them.

Steel water bottle:

Steel water bottle

Steel water bottles are made up of pure steel that is, in turn, made from the blast furnace. They don’t contain any other chemicals; hence, they do not cause any health effects. Sometimes they are fitted with a thin layer of thermal ceramic materials from inside to maintain temperature. They are a little expensive than plastic water bottles and grey most of the time. Non-water drinks like Curd, Shakes, or Juice fit well inside steel water bottles. However, they don’t have more capacity than 1-2 liters.

School water bottles:

School water bottle

School water bottles are similar to regular plastic bottles. However, the only difference is that they are vivid, and the water cap has a hole with a small plastic lid. They store half a liter of water and sometimes have water meter labeled on the side of bottles.

Thermal bottled water:

Thermal water bottle

Thermal water bottles are used to stored hot beverages like tea and coffee to stabilize temperature when going for an outing or in office. They are expensive and cost around $20 to $30 per bottle at most of the shopping and grocery malls. The inner and outer side is made up of steel. It has a thermal coating inside the inner and outer walls of the bottle. And it is fitted with a robust thick plastic tap opens when you press the top of it. They are highly durable and do not break easily, unlike plastic bottles.

Glass Bottle:

Glass water bottle

As per the scientific study, drinking from water glass is healthy and risk-free. Glass molecules don’t let bacteria grow in water. They are highly fragile and not readily transportable. A glass water bottle can cost in the range of $10-$30 and mostly has a capacity of 1 -2 liters. Alcoholic beverages like whiskey, wine, rum, vodka, etc. are all stored and served glass bottles.

Recyclable water bottle :

Recyclable water bottles

Government from many countries are emphasizing to increase the use of recyclable water bottle. They help to reduce plastic pollution and save time and cost to produce new plastic. Recyclable water bottles are available in various capacities from 1 liter to 15 liters.

Clay water bottles:

Clay water bottle

Clay water bottles build from clay, which is nothing but mud and soil. Clay is rolled over a wheel and shaped with bare hands. After then, clay bottles are roasted in oven so that they remain durable for more prolonged use. Clay bottles are also helping to keep water fresh during summer seasons. Many developing nations like India prefer to keep them in public places so that thirsty passer-by can drink water during intense heat. In ancient times, the most significant civilizations were used to drink using clay pots and bottles. Because of their cooling properties, and they also help make a living for poor people. During water scarcity, villagers would store water inside big clay vessels to avoid vapourization.

Plastic Dispenser Water Bottle:

Plastic Dispenser Water Bottle

These are big plastic water bottles, mainly used for storing large amounts of water. They come in 15 to 20 liters capacity variations and are transparent with light blue color. After drinking, they can be used to store other types of liquid due to their durability.

The lid is reusable. It doesn’t content with any handle but often comes with a water dispenser. During water scarcity in Chennai, these were hot items for sale on amazon and shopping websites.

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