Water and Sanitation

Water sanitation is essential to maintain a healthy life. Water sanitation is required to reduce hospitalization and avoid diseases like gastritis. As an example, the Indian health care system has created a separate ministry for water sanitation. Every day more than 10,000 people get skill because of the contaminated water. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of their improper hygiene of water.

Sources of water contamination:


contaminated Rainwater
Rainwater contamination with soil.

Rain precipitate on the ground, and it gets mixed with the water chemical present in the soil. The water gets absorbed by underground sources.

Excessive Industrialization:

Excessive industrialization
Overproduction of steel demands for more water.

Many times, water is used for cleaning and washing the mechanical find electrical instruments in big industries gallons of water is used to remove heavy equipment. As a result, after washing industrial machine, water is released into lakes and rivers without proper wastewater treatment.

Dirty Hospitals:

Dirty hospitals lead more deaths.
Dirty hospital entrance

A lot of medical and human waste please is dumped outside the hospitals in an open space, and it requires a lot of water so that it can be washed through. As a result, this water precipices and creates a lot of germs and bacteria, which are very harmful and cause terminal illness even in some cases.

Impacted Farms:

Farms impacted by polluted water.
polluted water degrades soil quality

Out of the 80% population in the world belongs to farming, where they harvest the crops each year and use the water for various purposes like tilling soil, cleaning plants, and collecting the plants. Water is also required to wash the cattle and farm animals. In many villages and towns, the public uses water to wash the clothes and utensils and release water in open ponds.

War Zones:

War zones leaves town empty and helpless.
The conflict zone needs more water.

Now and then, some countries are fighting with each other. As a result of this, a lot of refugees must migrate from countries to countries and regions to regions. In a refugee camp, water consumption is 20 liters per day per person, and there are no adequate sanitation systems in these conflict zones. Therefore, a lot of water is released is directly in the open ground and gives birth to harmful viruses.

Natural disasters and calamities:

Flooding in a town.
Natural calamities lead to extreme living conditions.

During events like a tsunami, millions of gallons of open water get inside the land and contaminate the whole region. It is challenging to perform water sanitation and requires a considerable amount of human efforts and costs from many countries. As an example, the 2004 tsunami killed thousands of people and made millions of people homeless hungry and thirsty for many days.


Holi festival glimpse
Indian people celebrating Holi festival

Different countries have different festivals where people need an abundant amount of water at festivals. As an example, in the River of Ganges, plenty amount of water gets contaminated because of the various public festivals and celebration activities.

Effects of water non-sanitation:


Illness due to water contamination
Fever due to infections in the water.

Water infection is the primary reason for most of the critical illnesses and diseases. Dengue, typhoid, and Cholera are the result of contaminated water. Approximately more than 20,000 people die every year because of dirty water.

Physical disabilities:

Physical disabilities due to lack of water infection.
Physical therapist helping a disabled person.

Not taking a Sufficient amount of water causes kidney failures and permanent damage to body organs. In some cases, it also paralyzes the body or deforms the physical structure of the body.

Impacts on the environment:

Contaminated water impact on environment.
Environmental impact due to water non-sanitization.

Because of deforestation lot of rainwater flows any way and disturbs the natural flow of water. Sometimes it leads to situations like flooding.

Impact on the economy:

Water impacting growth of country.
Water drought cause a severe impact on the economy

In many countries, separate budget allocation for sanitation of water of rivers, lakes, and ponds. The budget for healthcare also has to revise these days to include additional funding for water and sanitation.

Tourism effect:

Tourist reading map for possible route.
The tourism impact is unrecoverable.

Indonesia suffered the most significant economic crisis due to the tsunami. For almost two years, there was a continuous decrease in tourism and recreational activity.

Polluted Oceans:

Dirty beach.
Dirty beaches are a result of not following sanitization standards.

The South Indian fisheries business impacted heavily due to the contaminated water that happened because of the many floods and tsunami in the last decade. Polluted oceans ultimately damage the life cycle; hopefully, the ecosystem, and disrupt the food chain.

Impact on Industries:

Worker inspecting industry.
Reduced workforce

Contaminated packing, also contaminates the contents inside this packaging. This many times causes food poisoning and leads to mass death.


Damaged crops.
Agriculture devastation

Everyday water is required to feed to the plants and clean the farming animals. Contaminated water impacts the growth of the plants and causes severe illness to livestock.

Water sanitation benefits:

Balanced ecosystem:

Balanced ecology
Balanced environment

The significant advantage of water sanitation is a balanced ecosystem without affecting the food chain. Consumption using a proper sanitation system is always healthy and keeps the ecology intact.

Healthy body:

Healthy person
Women having a healthy body

Freshwater helps to maintain body immunity and keep away any illness. It is always beneficial to carry a litter of freshwater bottles while traveling.

Boost to Economic:

Boost to GDP due to sanitized water.
GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product.

Clean drinking water is a boost to the economy and wealth of the country. It helps to spend less on water-related issues and conflicts.


Harvesting apples.
Proper irrigation leading to healthy crops.

The sanitized water irrigation system used for growing plants helps to maintain the nutrition of the plants and improve the growth of the agriculture sector.

Water Research programs:

Scientist researching water sample.
Water research programs help to clean water and provide statistics.

Many universities have degrees for the clean water and Water sanitation system. By having sanitation subjects available to the students, it creates an awareness among the college graduates to generate more interested and focus on water research.

Safe drinking water: By systematically sanitizing water, we get safe drinking water every day. It additionally balances the supply and demand for water across the globe.

Food economics: Investing budget for water also makes it essential to allocate resources to improve the quality of foods and edible items.

Tourism: Cleaned and safe drinking water reduces fear among travelers and helps to boost the tourism economy of the country.

Fisheries: Water is essential for fishery business, and it cannot serve without clean and sanitized water resources like lakes and rivers. Wastewater treatment plants help to sanitized sewage water so that filtered water routes into rivers after proper wastewater treatment.

Improve GDP: The main parameter for GDP calculation is health care. Clean water helps to keep the country and its citizens disease-free and invest less in health issues. It helps to improve the productivity of the land and boost the GDP.

Population: Drinking sanitized water every day helps to balance the mortality rate and maintain the community of the country at a proper pace. Cleaned water also reduces infant mortality rate as an initial six months are very crucial for newborn babies.

How we can adapt to clean water and sanitation systems:

Training and Awareness: The primary factor in water sanitation is awareness among the non-urban regions, schools, and universities. It is an individual’s responsibility to avoid drinking unsafe water and always carry freshwater. Governments need to provide various training programs to the people in villages and towns on the impact and need for the water sanitation

Budget: The government should allocate enough resources and budget for water sanitation projects and related activities. It is the government’s responsibility to take advantage of water sanitation. Also, the process should be transparent and rapid to face any circumstances that could danger water sanitation.

Behavior change: We should not take the world granted for its natural resources. We should consume only enough amount of water that is required and does not throw away leftover water. Otherwise, it will lead to a higher demand for water than its supply, and people may consume more unhealthy water due to water scarcity.

Hygiene: We should maintain cleanliness and hygiene. Being always unhealthy and unhygienic states will be led to more need for water.

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103 Innovative ways to conserve water

  1. Take only enough water in a glass that you can drink.
  2. Use recyclable paper and cups for drinking and eating during festivals
    Install water collector at the rooftop of the building and drained water into the underground water tank.
  3. Collect the rainwater and store it in a moveable water tank to transport to drought areas.
  4. Build water well, water reservoir, borewell at a suitable geographical location in farms.
  5. Take the help of geoscientists to find probable water aquifer location.
  6. Do not drill excessive water bores as cleaning of bores required washing and cleaning to maintain it.
  7. Do not carry excessive water while traveling; otherwise, a lot of people tend to spill leftover water in bottles.
  8. Regularly check water basic, bathroom, toilets for leaks, and repair immediately in case found any leakage.
  9. Use solar dripper for plants as plants require a different amount of water during various seasons and helps to prevent water deficiency.
  10. Use water caps for the water taps so that water shall not spill.
  11. Avoid deforestation and plant as many as plants as possible.
  12. If you are a single person living in an apartment, then washcloths biweekly to avoid water usage. Keep spare pair clothes for at least two weeks.
  13. Use water only when you are washing shaving blades, trimmers, and toothbrushes.
  14. Close water taps while brushing, shaving hair, and use trimmers.
  15. Use the dishwasher only when all utensils are used up. If you are not using a dishwasher, try to wash utensils only once in a day. Perhaps it is recommended to use recycled paper, as mentioned in point 1.
  16. Buy already cleaned vegetable and meat products.
  17. Do not soak vegetables and meat in water for longer than needed.
  18. Do not store water in clear glass, water bottles, water tanks as it leads to the growth of harmful bacteria.
  19. Use artificial intelligence equipment water sprinklers on farms. Use sprinkler only when needed.
  20. Use a microwave oven for cooking food and use less oil. Utensils without oil can are with less water.
  21. For bathing, use one bucket of water at max. Avoid using showers, bathtubs.
  22. Use air flushed toilets.
  23. Wash the car with air than water and sponge.
  24. Avoid drinking alcohol as one may have to pee frequently.
  25. Use carpet and vacuum cleaner to clean carpet instead of using plain tiles and washing with water.
  26. Regularly check your apartment for the water pipeline and leakage.
  27. Report local authorities if you observe water theft or water pipeline breakage.
  28. Avoid going to restaurants and cook food at home.
  29. Avoid polluting water and throwing garbage at natural places.
  30. If visiting hospitals, avoid going with too many people as it may help to spread diseases and contamination.
  31. If you have a running nose, always keep and use tissue paper.
  32. Our body needs 4 liters of water in different sources. Try to drink 2 liters of freshwater and remaining in the form of fruits like coconut water, juice, and pulps.
  33. Avoid smoking as it demands more water in the body.
  34. Buy fish from fish markets and avoid buying from local street vendors.
  35. Street vendors threw leftover waste material on the street and required a lot of water for cleaning.
  36. Use public transport for traveling and keep driving minimum to drink less water.
  37. Inform local authorities about plastic pollution and wastewater disposal in your vicinity.
  38. Participate in non-profit organizations that are working on water problems and the famine.
  39. Avoid visiting flood-impacted areas as it may increase contamination in water, soil, and air.
  40. Use systematically controlled drip irrigation for harvesting crops.
  41. Use fertilizers consciously when water is undersupplying. Excessive spraying damages the plants, soil, and water quality.
  42. Do not use sophisticated water filters in advanced countries like the USA, where tap water is already filtered.
  43. Install water meter, which is readily available in the market. Analyze your daily water requirement and set the water meter accordingly.
  44. Use mud pots to store freshwater. Mud pots maintain the temperature of water even at 50 degrees Celsius.
  45. Different State government should work collaborate to share river water.
  46. Take a bath using cold water as gas and electronic geezer excessively heat water leading evaporation.
  47. It is safe to use 100 liters water per day for all activities, including bathing, flushing toilets, washing.
  48. During the Birthday party, use an alternate of water for fun activities like filling balloons with just air instead of liquid.
  49. Use advertisement board on streets and highway to indicate remaining water supply in rivers, dams, lakes.
  50. Use shower heads in bathrooms to reduce the amount of water spillage while bathing.
  51. Encourage graduates to initiate start-up companies to reduce water and energy consumption.
  52. Encourage farmers to grow low water-intensive crops like date palms and grapevines.
  53. Adopt to mentality to use recycled water for drinking purposes. In Namibia, more than 300,000 people rely on recycled water for drinking.
  54. Track water tank cost in your area understand the value of water in your area. The higher cost of water tanks means higher demand for water and less supply for water and take necessary precaution with the help of local social groups.
  55. Keep studying water scarcity and solutions on the internet. It helps in emergency cases where you have no access to water, and you must come up with an innovative solution.
  56. Countries like the UK have the latest technologies like flood gates to avoid water getting inside the house during flooding and flow toward appropriate water supply.
  57. If there is water scarcity or a limited amount of water remaining in well, then prepare a schedule where each family can collect water on certain days on weekdays. For example, ten families on Monday, the next ten families on Tuesday.
  58. Avoid excessive drilling of borewell in limited water supply and densely populated areas as it may drain out underground water aquifers.
  59. Dry washed clothes on the hanger and keep the water collector pot at the ground so that water drained from cloths fall inside the pot.
  60. Audit life duration of bridges over the river, oceans, canals, and take immediate reparation actions so that the bridge does not collapse and does not pollute water.
  61. Avoid excessive fishing in artificial lakes, rivers as left-over fish food resides on the surface leading to water pollution.
  62. Avoid release human waste, ashes, or liquid substances into a river.
  63. In hills areas, create stone linked tanks so that water that flows across hills stores in basins.
  64. In ancient India, there were water pits inside homes for various purposes. These pits connect to underground channels to rivers and lakes. They are ref as Tankas, which is a stone structure. The rainwater that falls outside house walls gets inside through artificial inlets in walls and collected at Tankas.
  65. Shop smarts groceries that requires less amount of water to maintain them.
  66. Use electric fans instead of air conditioners. If it is not possible, then collect water released from air conditioners as it is reusable for drinking after filtration.
  67. Place stick notes on water sinks, basics as a reminder reasons for water scarcity and solutions.
  68. Leftover water from the ice is good for lawn or gardening purposes.
  69. Use the bucket with water instead of showers. Limiting one bucket of water shower avoids a lot of water spillage.
  70. Use cold water instead of hot water for the shower.
  71. Soak lentils, pulses before cooking.
  72. Use avatar with water images for social networking applications and websites like Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, etc.
  73. Discuss and debate water-related issues openly with friends while traveling using public transport buses, trains, taxis.
  74. Truckers need to carry enough amount of water while transporting. You may pass via a water-scarce village and may end using their little water supply.
  75. Another way to conserve water is to service motorcycles and cars at service centers for 3-4 times a year instead of washing and to maintain them daily.
  76. Order less water contained food at restaurants, hotels, and buffets.
  77. Avoid binge-watching as the body will demand more water.
  78. Regularly attend water conferences, events, and summit to get the latest updated on water conservation, water scarcity solutions, and techniques.
  79. Give recognition and award to school children, kids, and teens for saving water and following water conversation tips.
  80. Use tissue papers for soaking water after the bath.
  81. Use tissue papers for cleaning bums after potty.
  82. Use paper napkins if you have a running nose. Throw the towels in the dustbin after use and do not wash with water.
  83. Use Xeriscaping is in the garden and lawns. Xeriscaping is a way toward arranging or planting that diminishes or disposes of the requirement for supplemental water from the water system.
  84. Dig 15 centimeters holes in steep hill areas so that water can be stored. Use signs to indicate such gaps.
  85. Use compost fertilizers as they help to hold water and ways to conserve water.
  86. Use empty coconut shells to stored rainwater for drinking.
  87. Do not plant water in slope areas where water cannot behold.
  88. Regularly remove unwanted grass around crops.
  89. Get a professional person for harvesting, plantation, and irrigation. Unprofessional people tend to make a lot of mistakes. It will cause consistent maintenance of the farm.
  90. Limit the number of tests in chemical labs to conserve water.
  91. It is economics to use drip irrigation than water sprinklers for agriculture purposes.
  92. Use organic farming methods to reduce the consumption of water for crops.
  93. Use agriculture fencing so that water disposed of the plant can reside within the plantation area.
  94. Construct a single outlet to flow an animal’s urine in a pot. This pot containing animal’s urine from horses, cows, and sheep act as an organic fertilizer and help save a lot of water.
  95. Focus on vertical farming techniques where plants require 95% or less water than conventional farming techniques.
  96. Try to add the whole high fiber diet to reduce the quantity of water you consume.
  97. Refill your water bottle hydration stations at public places like airport, train station instead of buying new water bottles.
  98. Use toilets, which has labeled as WaterSense.
  99. When feeding water to your pets, reuse water from non-eatable trees and plants.
  100. Avoid swimming in the swimming pool and use natural water resources like the ocean, river, and lakes for swimming.
  101. Pursue your water plan the city gives you. Report the people who do not follow the city’s water plan schedules.
  102. Calculate your water consumption computation at the rate of $2.5(average cost of a 1-liter bottle in any grocery store in the USA). At the end of the month, make total this. Analyze the full amount and imagine that the total expenses of your water per month.
  103. Contribute and donate in water exploration programs where lander and satellite have been sent to search water on exoplanets.

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